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[1]孙国翔,周川,杨小兵,等.1993—2016年我国职业中毒现状分析及防治对策[J].中国安全生产科学技术,2018,14(10):187-192.[doi:10.11731/j.issn.1673-193x.2018.10.030]
 SUN Guoxiang,ZHOU Chuan,YANG Xiaobing,et al.Analysis on current situation of occupational poisoning in China from 1993 to 2016 and prevention and control countermeasures[J].JOURNAL OF SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,2018,14(10):187-192.[doi:10.11731/j.issn.1673-193x.2018.10.030]
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1993—2016年我国职业中毒现状分析及防治对策
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《中国安全生产科学技术》[ISSN:1673-193X/CN:11-5335/TB]

卷:
14
期数:
2018年10期
页码:
187-192
栏目:
职业安全卫生管理与技术
出版日期:
2018-10-31

文章信息/Info

Title:
Analysis on current situation of occupational poisoning in China from 1993 to 2016 and prevention and control countermeasures
文章编号:
1673-193X(2018)-10-0187-06
作者:
孙国翔1周川2杨小兵2杨博2刘艳艳1陈先锋1
(1.武汉理工大学 资源与环境工程学院,湖北 武汉 430070;2. 防化研究院,北京 100191)
Author(s):
SUN Guoxiang1 ZHOU Chuan2 YANG Xiaobing2 YANG Bo2 LIU Yanyan1 CHEN Xianfeng1
(1. School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan Hubei 430070, China;2. Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100191, China)
关键词:
职业病职业中毒规律措施
Keywords:
occupational disease occupational poisoning law measure
分类号:
X965
DOI:
10.11731/j.issn.1673-193x.2018.10.030
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
为了全面了解我国职业中毒现状,进而制定更有针对性的防治对策,通过对1993—2016年国家卫生部公布的全国职业病数据进行统计分析,深入探讨我国职业中毒的发生状况及规律。分析结果显示:中国患职业病人数居高不下,呈波动上升趋势, 2016年达31 789例;每年职业中毒病例占据职业病例3.7%~34.1%,是除尘肺病外发生次数最多的职业病;急性职业中毒病例在每年职业中毒病例中占据比例较小,而慢性职业中毒病例较多;引起急性职业中毒的化学品主要是CO和H2S,主要发病行业为化工、冶金、有色金属、轻工和煤炭等,而化工行业发病频率最高;铅及其化合物、苯以及三硝基甲苯是引起慢性职业中毒的主要危险化学品,发病主要集中在有色金属、冶金、机械和电子等行业。在以上分析结果基础上,建议监督管理部门加强对相关行业的监管,督促落实职业中毒防治措施,开展安全教育与培训,增强劳动者职业中毒的防范意识。
Abstract:
In order to fully understand the current situation of occupational poisoning in China, thus formulate the more targeted prevention and control countermeasures, the statistical analysis was carried out on the data of national occupational diseases released by the Ministry of Health of China from 1993 to 2016, and the occurrence status and laws of occupational poisoning in China were discussed deeply. The results showed that the number of people with the occupational diseases in China stayed at a high level and presented the trend of fluctuation rise, which reached 31789 in 2016. The cases of occupational poisoning accounted for 3.7%~34.1% of the total cases of occupational diseases every year, and it was the occupational disease with the most frequency except the pneumoconiosis. The proportion of acute occupational poisoning was less in the annual occupational poisoning cases, while that of chronic occupational poisoning was more. The acute occupational poisoning was mainly caused by the chemical exposure such as CO and H2S, and the major incidence industries included the chemical, township enterprises, light and coal industries, while the incidence frequency of the chemical industry was the largest. The lead and its compounds, benzene and trinitrotoluene were the main dangerous chemicals causing the chronic occupational poisoning, and the incidence mainly concentrated on the nonferrous metals, metallurgy, mechanical and electronic industries. On the basis of the above analysis results, it was suggested that the supervision and administration departments should strengthen the supervision on the related industries, supervise the implementation of the prevention and control measures of occupational poisoning, conduct the safety training and education, and enhance the prevention awareness of occupational poisoning for the workers.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期: 2018-06-06
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0804907);核化应急救援科研基金项目(W3105,W3106);国家自然科学基金项目(51504174);中央高校基本科研业务费资助项目(185208005)
作者简介: 孙国翔,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为个体防护技术。
通信作者: 杨小兵,博士,副研究员,主要研究方向为个体防护装备技术、功能防护材料及标准化。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-11-07